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Generator, one of the most fundamental and important electric power facilities, composes as a part of power systems and generates electric power.
 
Thus, stable operation and protection/control of generator are critical factors necessary for supplying electric power to the power-customer.
 
Depending on source of energy, generator is divided into hydro electrical power, thermal electrical power, nuclear electric power, and as renewable energy such as solar and wind power is getting more attention recently.
 
In many electric power facilities protection systems, a field related to generator protection system critically needs experience in high technology and design ability. Also, it is very professional that needs knowledge of generator system itself and know-how in order to commission and engineering.
 
Generally, considering the importance of electric power generation facility, protection system configuration is composed of completely independent redundant systematic protection system with 1st protection system and 2nd protection system. Applying protection relay is current differential protection as a main protection function and protects generator rotor and stator by using over-current, over- voltage and negative sequence over current protection element. And for power system stability such as frequency, active/ reactive power, and various other protection elements are used.
 
GABO’s generator protection panel has a protection relay (7UMX) made from SIEMENS, in order to guarantee reliability. By having accumulated knowledge in manufacturer technology of protection panel, and experienced professionals, we strive to accomplish noise immunity, stable earthing, durability, insulation, assembly, all of which being incorporated in order to generate products of credibility.
   
  GENERATOR PROTECTION SYSTEMS CONFIGURATION
 
In a generator protection system, composition is different according to the kind of power generation facility, scheme of protection and protection philosophy that has been maintained in each country.
Generally, main protection is used with a current differential protection between primary and secondary winding for detecting generator’s internal fault. And depending on system configuration and experience in design, main protection zone for generator protection could include stepup transformer.
Considering performance and reliability of system, redundant system composed of first protection and second protection has been used.
   
  FLEXIBILITY OF FIELDS APPLIED
 
A generator protection panel with application of 7UMx developed by SIEMENS could be used in not only generator protection but also in motor, shunt reactor and transformer protection.
Thus, it could be used in a protection of electric power generation facility with step-up transformer, also in pumped storage power plant having characteristics of generator and motor, guarantee to provide economy and credibility of system.
 
   
  GENERATOR PROTECTION PANEL APPLICATION
 
A generator protection panel is designed accordingly to various protections scheme in which fitted into each kind of electric power generation facility. Our generator protection panel with 7UMx, can be applied for protection of following various generator facility.
 
- Hydro power generation plant protection.
- Pumped storage power generation plant protection.
- Diesel power generation plant protection.
- Gas turbine power generation plant protection.
- Steam turbine power generation plant protection.
- Self power generation facility protection.
- Wind turbine power generation plant protection.
- Renewable energy power generation plant protection.
   
  GENERATOR PROTECTION RELAY (7UMx)
 
- Provides various applications with multiple protection function.
- Protection function including electric power generator/ motor/ transformer.
- 100 % Stator earth fault protection using thirdharmonic element.
- Stator earth fault protection using 20 Hz voltage element.
- Impendence protection element (distance protection element).
- Differential current protection element for ground fault.
- Restricted earth fault protection.
- Out-of-Step detection function.
- High sensitive earth fault of rotor detection function.
- Voltage input circuit fault detection function.
   
  CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS
 
Depending on ratio between differential current and restraint current, it is divided into trip area and non-trip area. In restraint current, stable restraint characteristics is provided considering current transformer error, synchronization error, and CT saturation. Differential current protection function provides distinguished trip characteristics in order to detect a phase-to-earth fault and a phase-to-phase fault of a power generator.
   
  EXCITATION SYSTEM FAULT PROTECTION
 
Excitation system fault protection uses impendence/admittance detection element by utilizing generator’s terminal voltage and current. For a credible detection, characteristics of 3-step protection zone are provided.
   
  ELEMENTS OF PROTECTION RELAY (7UMx)
 
- Current differential protection (87G/87T/87M). - Over Excitation protection. - Self-diagnosis.
- Ground fault of stator winding protection. - Excitation system fault (exciter loss) protection. - Metering (current, voltage, active/ reactive power, etc)
- High sensitive stator/rotor ground fault protection. - Negative phase sequence detection. - Event recording function (trip, alarm, fail, etc)
- Stator overload protection. - Circuit breaker failure protection. - Using any portable computing device, setting and fault analysis function (analysis program (DIGSI), Comrade File conversion function) becomes possible.
- Over current/ over voltage protection. - Impedance protection.
- Frequency protection. - Out of step protection.
- Active/ reactive power protection. - Circuit breaker trip coil supervision protection.
   
  GENERATOR PROTECTION TECHNICAL STANDARD/SPECIFICATION
 
Index Item Specification
Current differential ralay Distance relay
Rating Power Supply Voltage Input   DC : 125[V], AC : 230[V] (Frequency 50/60[hz])
Power Consumption   15[W], 15[VA]
Analog Current   1[A], Burden : 0.05[VA]
  5[A], Burden : 0.3[VA]
Power   0 ~ 200[V], Power Consumption ≒ 0.3[VA]
Digital input   Number of digital input : 7/15
  Voltage Range : 88~300[VDC]
  8/16/22/24
Digital Output   Number of digital output : 12/20
  Allowable Current : Continus(5[A]), 30[A](0.5[sec])
  15~43
Communication Communication Port   RS-232, RS-485, Ethernet, FO(Fiber Optic)
Protocol   Modbus, Profibus , DNP3.0, IEC61850, TCP/IP
Time Synchronization   DCF77/IRIG-B/SNTP